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Buffalo River Watershed Alliance

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Buffalo National River Foundation Document, Oct. 2018. This document provides basic guidance for management and planning decisions.

Buffalo National River letter to ADEQ Director Teresa Marks, December 20, 2012. This was the first public communication regarding C&H Hog Farm which had been quietly permitted 4 months prior, in August, 2012.

Jan 3, 2013 ADEQ Response letter to National Park Service letter of Dec 20, 2012

Buffalo National River Water Quality Report, 1985-2011, Watershed Conservation Resource Center, Sandi Formica, Director. March 9, 2017.

 BRWA Position Paper on Redesignation of the Buffalo National River, November, 2023



Find Buffalo River Watershed information at

This site provides information on multiple water quality parameters collected at numerous sites on the Buffalo from 1985 to present. See the Water Quality Database 2005 - 2015 for most recent data, including E. coli and Dissolved Oxygen.

Bacteria Characterization of Big Creek and the Buffalo River near Carver
by Buffalo National River Wildlife Biologist, Feron Usrey

Showing the slides used in the presentation
 at the Boone County Library September 23, 2014 

NPS Letter To ADEQ Recommending Big Creek Be Added to 303(d) list of "impaired waters". October 6, 2015
To see more NPS 303(d) documents scroll up to the 303(d) Impaired Streams section above..

BNR Water Test Results
USGS Presentation: An Evaluation Of Continuous Monitoring Data For Assessing Dissolved Oxygen In The Boston Mountains. This report presented to the ADEQ Assessment Methodology Review meeting in December, 2016 shows that Big Creek exceeded the ADEQ standard of 10% of DO less than 6 micrograms/liter during the period of record (2015)

Below are water sampling results taken by BNR at selected points along the river. Of particular interest are samples taken from Big Creek (site BUFT06) just above its confluence with BNR. Compare the results from December 12, 2013 (before field applications began) with those taken April 7, 2014 (after field applications were underway). The Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Turbidity, Fecal Coliform and E. coli results are of concern. 

December 12, 2013 Scroll down to see results
January 27, 2014 Note: there is a second Big Creek, site BUFT18, in the Lower Wilderness.

Water Quality Characterization of Big Creek Powerpoint presentation to the Arkansas Water Resources conference, July 16, 2014 by NPS Aquatic Ecologist Faron Usrey. This presentation shows the negative influence Big Creek has on E. coli and dissolved oxygen levels in the Buffalo River.

Dissolved Oxygen Levels near confluence of Big Creek and Buffalo River, late Summer, 2014. This graph shows that during a 21 day period starting August 21 and ending September 10, the dissolved oxygen dropped to or below 5 mg/l on 19 nights. On several nights it remained at or below 5 mg/l for 8 hours or more. The stream was at a critical level for 23.76% of the time during that period.

BNR Tourism Statistics

Buffalo National River Economic Benefits Report , 2004-2014. Shows the visitor numbers, jobs created and economic impact of the Buffalo National River and other National Park units in Arkansas.

2012 National Park Visitor Spending Effects. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Natural Resource Report 

National Park Service 2017 Statistical Analysis provides stats on all National Park Units, including the Buffalo National River such as number of visitors, overnight stays, etc. BNR visitation in 2018 dropped 17.3% compared to 2016.

National Park Service Stats Site. Lots of statistical information about Park usage.

2017 Tourism Report: Tourism to Buffalo National River Creates $71.1 Million in Economic Benefits in 2017. Read more here

Newton County Tourism Tax paid during 2017 = $130,368, representing gross revenue generated by tourism businesses in the county of over $6.5 million

Ecosystem Services of the Buffalo National River in ArkansasMargaret A. Young,1 Krishna Patel,1 Leah C. Crenshaw,1 Matthew D. Moran,1,3 Maureen R. McClung,1 and William. Hendrix College, October, 2022. This research report describes the value of "intangible" economic benefits provided by the Buffalo National River.

BNR Water Studies

Water analysis results. 6/4/2015 - 5/17/2016 This document includes a map of numerous sampling locations along Big Creek,from upstream of C&H to the confluence with the Buffalo. The results are suggestive of nutrient loading in the vicinity of the hog factory.
Quality Assurance data in spreadsheet form to support above analysis

Base Flow, Water Quality, and Streamflow Gain and Loss of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, and Selected Tributaries, July and August 2003 

The role of organic matter in the fate and transport of antibiotic resistance, metals, and nutrients in the karst of Northwest Arkansas  draft doctoral dissertation of Victor Roland, University of Arkansas,  2016. 

Aquatic Invertebrate Monitoring at Buffalo National River 2005-2011 Status Report

BNR Fisheries Management Plan, 1995

Smallmouth Bass and Ozark Bass in the BNR, 1989

BNR Ecosystems, April 1, 1975 - March 31, 1975

Fish Community Monitoring at Buffalo National River: 2006 – 2007 Status Report

Protocol for Monitoring Aquatic Invertebrates at Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, and Buffalo National River, Arkansas, 2007

Methods for Monitoring Fish Communities of Buffalo National River and Ozark National Scenic Riverways in the Ozark Plateaus of Arkansas and Missouri : Version 1.0. USGS/NPS 2007.


Buffalo River Watershed Alliance is a non profit 501(c)(3) organization

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