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Buffalo River Science Symposium Presentations 

The following reports were presented at the first Buffalo National River Science Symposium held in Harrison, Arkansas on April 23, 2019.

Filamentous Algae Relations To Surface And Groundwater Nutrient Pathways In The Karst Watershed Of The First National River (Buffalo River, Arkansas) Billy Justus, Lucas Driver, Nathan Wentz, Shawn Hodges, and Ashley Rodman

The History Of Freshwater Mussels In The Buffalo National River, Shawn Hodges

Forecasting the Effects of Angler Harvest and Climate Change on Smallmouth Bass Abundance in the Buffalo River, Arkansas Christopher R. Middaugh1 and Daniel D. Magoulick

Water Quality Monitoring History & Plan Update Ashley Rodman

Big Creek Research And Extension Team: Monitoring To Date Brian Haggard

Aquatic Plants in Springs at Buffalo National River David E. Bowles

Long Term Aquatic Invertebrate Monitoring at Buffalo National River, Arkansas David Bowles

Long Term Fish Community Monitoring In The Buffalo National River Hope Dodd

History of Filamentous Algae in the Buffalo National River Tate Wentz

Preliminary Study Update: A Comparison Of Nutrient Water Quality In The Buffalo River Upstream And Downstream Of Big Creek Lucas Driver

Bacterial Counts And Metabolic Activity From Water Samples Along Buffalo National River Jill Jenkins

Surface Water Quality In The Buffalo National River (1985-2011) Sandi Formica

Other Scientific and Regulatory Articles

Seasonal periphyton response to low-level nutrient exposure in a least disturbed mountain stream, the Buffalo River, Arkansas. Billy G. Justus, Lucas J. Driver, David R. L. Burge. Ecological Indicators Vol 121, Feb. 2021

New PRRS Strain Kills Sows, Piglets. PRRS Strain 1-4-4 Results in 'More Dramatic' Hog Mortality. The Progressive Farmer 2/8/2021

Environmental Law—Regulation of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations—Reducing the Nuisance: How Arkansas Can Use Its Right-To- Farm Statute to Protect Against the Destruction of CAFOs University of Arkansas At Little Rock Law Review, Kristin Titley, 2015

Our Land Is Not Just Soil: Knowing, Feeling, and Doing Environmental Activism in the Arkansas Ozarks Doctoral dissertation, Ramey Arlen Moore, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 2017

Storm and Base Flow Water Quality For Bear, Calf and Tomahawk Creeks, Steel and Mott, 1998. Published by the Arkansas Water Resources Center. Provides good baseline data regarding sources of contamination of the Buffalo.


Property rights and rural justice: A study of U.S. right-to-farm lawsby Loka Ashwood, Danielle Diamond, Fiona Walker. Journal of Rural Studies, 2019


Coupling High-Frequency Stream Metabolism and Nutrient Monitoring to Explore Biogeochemical Controls on Downstream Nitrate Delivery

Helen P. Jarvie,*,† Andrew N. Sharpley,‡ Timothy Kresse,§ Phillip D. Hays,∥ Richard J. Williams,Stephen M. King,⊥ and Lawrence G. Berry



Consistency of the Threshold Phosphorus Saturation Ratio across a Wide Geographic Range of Acid Soils Biswanath Dari, Vimala D. Nair, Andrew N. Sharpley, Peter Kleinman, Dorcas Franklin, and Willie G. Harris. Journal of Agrosciences, Geosystems and Environment, Sept. 13, 2018.


Waterkeepers et al vs EPA, Ruling by the US Court of Appeals, April 17, 2017. This important ruling vacates the EPA Final Rule which exempts farms from reporting emissions and now requires CAFOs and other parties to notify authorities when large quantities of hazardous materials (such as ammonia or hydrogen sulfide) are released into the environment. 


Water Pollution from Livestock in the Shenandoah Valley Virginia’s System of Manure Management Fails to Protect Waterways and Needs to be Strengthened. Report by the environmental Integrity Project, April 26, 2017.


Illinois River Final Report to Governors from the Joint Study Committee

and Scientific Professionals Dec. 19, 2016. Recommends a Total Phosphorus level of 0.035 mg/l be adopted as the maximum allowable limit to protect Outstanding Resource Waters.



MORTALITY AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN NORTH CAROLINA COMMUNITIES LOCATED IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO HOG CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONSNORTH CAROLINA MEDICAL JOURNAL, OCTOBER 2018.


PETITION TO REVISE THE CLEAN WATER ACT REGULATIONS FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS, Citizens Petition to EPA, March 8, 2017


Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA’s Response to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on Regulation of CAFOs, November 8, 2011 



Implementation Guidance on CAFO Regulations – CAFOs That Discharge or Are Proposing to Discharge EPA May 28, 2010



DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR KARST GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY AND CONTAMINATION RISK MAPPING FOR THE PROTECTION OF KARST AQUIFERS IN MIDCONTINENT UNITED STATES , 2016. This is a report to the Cave Conservation Foundation by Katerina Kosic under a grant facilitated by BRWA.



Ponca Low Water Bridge to Kyle’s Landing Geo-float Guide to the Buffalo National River by John David McFarland Arkansas Geological Commission 02/26/01 


AQUIFERS OF ARKANSAS—PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND HYDROLOGIC AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN ARKANSAS

BY TIMOTHY M. KRESSE, PHILLIP D. HAYS, KATHERINE R. MERRIMAN, JONATHAN A. GILLIP, D. TODD FUGITT, JANE L. SPELLMAN, ANNA M. NOTTMEIER, DREW A. WESTERMAN, JOSHUA M. BLACKSTOCK, AND JAMES L. BATTREAL  LISTEN TO TIM KRESSE DISCUSS THE PUBLICATION ON KUAF RADIO, OCT. 24, 2016


Using Data, Communication & Education to Improve Swine Waste Management in the Buffalo River Watershed S. J. Formica, T. Morris, M. A. Van Eps, T. Kresse, M. Anderson, & J. Giese 2001


A Cow Palace Coup: Expanding the Reach of RCRA to Combat Agricultural Pollution Georgetown Law Review, 2016


CASTING PEARLS BEFORE SWINE: HOW THE BUFFALO RIVER INCARNATES THE GAP IN WILD AND SCENIC LEGISLATION, BY MICAH GOODWIN, ARKANSAS LAW REVIEW, 2015




The Role of Phosphorus Management - Dr. Andrew Sharpley - January 30, 2015 Youtube presentation from Maryland Phosphorus Symposium. Quote from approximately 32;00: "We can't expect cheap food and clean water at the same time."


EPA Risk Assessment Evaluations for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, May, 2004 (see chapters 5 and 8)


EPA 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria


The role of organic matter in the fate and transport of antibiotic resistance, metals, and nutrients in the karst of Northwest Arkansas  draft doctoral dissertation of Victor Roland, University of Arkansas,  2016. 


CAFOs Uncovered The Untold Costs of Confined Animal Feeding Operations by Doug Durian-Sherman, Union of Concerned Scientists, 2008 page2image1528 page2image1952


Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Wastewater on Agricultural Lands , 2007

Scott A. Bradford* USDA-ARS Eran Segal and Wei Zheng University of California–Riverside Qiquan Wang Delaware State University Stephen R. Hutchins USEPA


Corporate Agribusiness And The Fouling Of America's Waterways: The Role Of Large Agribusiness Companies In Polluting Our Rivers, Lakes And Coastal Waters. Environment America 2016 Report (50 pages). June 30, 2016.


Is Groundwater that Is Hydrologically Connected to Navigable Waters Covered Under the CWA?: Three Theories of Coverage & Alternative Remedies for Groundwater Pollution by Allison L. Kvien , 2015 Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

  The Buffalo River: A Jurisprudence of Preservation John W. Ragsdale, Jr. 1994 A philosophical discourse on preservation law.


Discovery Farm Protocol - Arkansas Discovery Farms: documenting water

quality benefits of on-farm conservation management and empowering farmers, April 2015




C&H Hog Farms:An Investigation Into The Permitting Of A Concentrated Animal feeding Operation In The Buffalo River Watershed 2014 University of Arkansas Civil Engineering Masters thesis by Samantha Hovis 

Nevada Hydrogeological Study designed to demonstrate the use of the nitrogen-15 isotope analysis method as a means to determine if an animal waste lagoon at a swine facility in Reno County was leaking and affecting the water quality of the Equus Beds aquifer. August 2000

Tracing Nitrate Transport and Environmental Impact from Intensive Swine Farming using Delta Nitrogen-15, Groundwater Quality Journal, January, 2000. This study concludes that stable isotope analysis "...demonstrates nitrate export from the site, despite the presence of riparian buffers that meet current regulatory requirements."

 




Source Tracking Swine Fecal Waste 2014 research report on microbial source tracking of swine waste near CAFOs

Estimation of Pig Fecal Contamination in a River Catchment by Real-Time PCR  2008, Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Referred to in above research report.


The Questions Rural Communities Should Ask About CAFOs by Dr John Ikerd, 2006. "Not a single community where CAFOs represent a significant segment of the local economy is looked upon today as a model of economic success or prosperity."

The Cerrell Report  This 1984 report commissioned by the California Waste Management Board provides insight into how industry with noxious facilities sees siting strategies as one of their most important undertakings. Among the least likely to resist :Southern, Midwestern communities Rural communities,Open to promises of economic benefits, Conservative, Republican, Free-Market, Above Middle Age, High school or less education, Low income, Catholics, Not involved in social issues, Old-time residents (20 years+),“Nature exploitive occupations” (farming, ranching, mining) Sound familiar?

Understanding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Their Impact on Communities  2010 Report of the National Association of Local Boards of Health

Resources For Understanding the Impacts of CAFOs and Industrial Meat Production  Published by Land and Table on 05/10/2014. A collection of news links, academic, scientific and non-profit research and other resources that explain the issues involved in industrial meat production 

EPA Report: Case Studies of Impact of CAFOs on Ground Water Quality, Sept. 2012


Phosphorus Retention and Remobilization along Hydrological Pathways in Karst Terrain by Helen P. Jarvie, Andrew N. Sharpley, Van Brahana, Tarra Simmons, April Price, Colin Neal, Alan J. Lawlor, Darren Sleep, Sarah Thacker,and Brian E. HaggardEnvironmental Science and TechnologyMarch 17, 2014.


Nutrient and Heavy Metal Content of Hog Manure - University of Manitoba

 

Nutrient Content of Swine Manure Research from Clemson University.

CAFO Air Pollution and Children This document, submitted as a comment to ADEQ, points out the many dangers of exposure of children to air pollution from CAFOs.

Analysis of Impact of Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production Finds Administration and Congress Have Exacerbated Problems in - 2013 Five years after the Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production (PCIFAP) released its landmark recommendations to remedy the public health, environment, animal welfare and rural community problems caused by industrial food animal production, a new analysis by Johns Hopkins University Center for a Livable Future (CLF) finds that the Administration and Congress have acted “regressively” in policymaking on industrial food animal system issues.


Effects of Animal Feeding Operations on Water Resources And The Environment , 1999 Proceedings of USGS Technical Meeting/CAFO Conference, Fort Collins, CE



EPA Literature Review - Manure and Water Quality This is a July 2013 Literature Review of Contaminants in Livestock and Poultry Manure and Implications for Water Quality, by EPA.

Factory Farm Map Find out how factory fams affect us all.

Cargill: A Threat To Food And Farming How does the largest privately owned company in the U.S. impact you?

Iowa Research on the CAFO Experience  This is an outstanding summary of the various impacts of CAFOs in Iowa. Iowa has long term experience with CAFOs. This is a footnoted account of the impacts of CAFOs on watersheds, people, farmers and the economy. Very readable with footnoted research. A must-read for everyone.

Understanding CAFOs and Their Impact on Communities This document was created by the National Association of Local Boards of Health. It is very well done and covers all the impacts from water pollution, to health to, the impact on local communities. Required reading to understand the the scope of impacts of any hog CAFO. There is reason for much concern. 

CAFOs: What are the Community Costs?  This is a study of community impacts from the University of Louisville. It is yet another survey of CAFO impacts. Of particular interest is that it identifies issues related to limestone Karst regions. This is directly relevant to understanding the impact here. 

CAFOs and Environmental Justice: The Case of North Carolina The clustering of North Carolina’s hog CAFOs in low-income, minority communitiesundefinedand the health impacts that accompany themundefinedhas raised concerns of environmental injustice and environmental racism

Keep the Buffalo In A Natural State This website by a geoscientist from Arkansas provides a good overview of the 
C & H operation including a page of detailed maps of the CAFO location showing its proximity to the Mt Judea school.

The North Carolina Hog Industry The history and current status of hogs in NC. They are well ahead of us here in Arkansas and now a moratorium on hog operations larger than 250 head.

An Illinois Success Story Concerned citizens organized to halt a 5,500 head dairy CAFO located in karst terrain. After nearby surface waters were shown to be polluted by seepage from sewage lagoons the facility was closed and the land sold.

How CAFOs Impact Health This is a list of google search results from National Institutes of Health (NIH)


Confined Animal Feeding Operations Cost Taxpayers Billions  Misguided federal farm policies have encouraged the growth of massive confined animal feeding operations, or CAFOs, by shifting billions of dollars in environmental, health and economic costs to taxpayers and communities, according to a report released today by the Union of Concerned Scientists

 Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production  Putting Meat on The Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America

Let Pigs Be Pigs A sustainable alternative to the CAFO model

As Factory Farms Spread, Government Efforts to Curb Threat From Livestock Waste Bog Down This article from fairwarning.com describes the catch-me-if-you-can attitude and chilling influence Big Ag lobbyists have had on government efforts to monitor and regulate CAFOs across the nation.

The Economic Impact of Tourism in Arkansas This is a Department of Tourism report from 2012 which shows the importance of tourism to the Arkansas economy. In Newton County alone, where C & H Hog Farm is located, tourism expenditures were almost $12,000,000, generating over $277,000 in local taxes and supporting 138 jobs. C & H has stated it would provide 8-10 jobs and generate an estimated $25,000 in local taxes.


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